Thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, Francis Fukuyama's assertion about the end of Leninism and the final victory of liberalism seems definitely contested. The return of the ideology of nationalism, which remained at the “end of history”, gives reason rather to those who predicted that nationalism and identity politics would occupy the ideological vacuum left by Leninism. For many authors, the return of nationalism was foreseeable above all in Central and Eastern Europe, where the transition created conditions for the return of identity policies. This panel addresses not only the characterisitics of nationalism in this region, but also its impact on European and transatlantic institutions, and the authoritarian shift that accompanies it. The panel provides an updated analysis of the new contours of nationalism in Europe, as well as the debate on the European crisis and the emerging resistance to the liberal values that underpin the integration project.